Dr. Efrat Ram-Tiktin

Advisor: MA in Bioethics; Joint program Philosophy and Law

Dr. Efrat Ram-Tiktin





B.A.            Inter-Disciplinary Dept., Social Science School (Psychology, Criminology and Sociology)

                   Bar-Ilan University, 1999-2002

                   Summs Cum Laude


M.A            Philosophy Dept., The Graduate Program in Bioethics

                   Bar-Ilan University, 2002-2005

                   Magna Cum Laude


Ph.D           Philosophy Dept.

                   Bar-Ilan University, 2005-2009


         Thesis: Distributive Justice in Health Care




Bar Ilan University             Lecturer           2014

Bar-Ilan University             Instructor        2009 – 2014

Ono Academic College      Post-doctorate fellowship



Hadassah Ein-Kerem School of Medicine  2010



Doctoral Fellowship of Excellence (Bar –Ilan University, 2005-2009)

Rotenstreich Grant (Council for Higher Education, 2007-2010)

Post-doc Fellowship (Ono Academic College, 2009-2011)


ISF (2018-2021) A Unified Theory of Distributive Justice in Education – A Capability Perspective

BIU – Inter-Disciplinary Research Grant (2020-2021): The Status of Fertilized eggs in Israeli Society.


Assistant editor Journal of Health Law and Bioethics       2009-2011

(Faculty of Law, Ono Academic College)

Blue and White Bioethics – Israeli Perspectives. Editor: Gil Siegal. (Forthcoming)


CONFERENCES (organization):

Oxford-Mount Sinai Consortium on Bioethics (Zefat, April 14-17, 2015)

Blue and White Bioethics – Israel's Perspective  (Ashkelon, January 20-22, 2011)

The Double Agent Dilemma – On Conflicting Obligations of Physicians (Haifa, April 16-17, 2010)



International Scope, in English:

Israel Philosophy Association. Ramat-Gan, Israel. February 13, 2019. Paper: It Takes a Village to raise a child – solidarity and posthumous assisted reproduction.

32nd European conference of philosophy of medicine and health care. Lisbon, Portugal. August 22-25, 2018. Paper: Posthumous Assisted Reproduction - Solidarity as a Theoretical Framework

Oxford-Mount Sinai Consortium on bioethics. New York, USA. April 16 – 18, 2018. Paper: The Israel Fertility Association recommendations on posthumous assisted reproduction.

HDCA 2017 Conference. Paper - Tragedy of the Commons and Population Health. September 6-8, 2017. South Africa – Cape Town.

Workshop – “Europe on Distributive Justice”. Paper presented - The Interplay between Cultural Context Values and Universal Distributive Principles. June 14-17, 2017. Aarhus University, Denmark.

Eastern APA’s (American Philosophical Association) Committee on Philosophy and Medicine. Paper presented: Basic Human Functional Capabilities and Sufficientarian Distribution in Health Care. January 4-7, 2017. Baltimore, USA.


Oxford-Mount Sinai Consortium on bioethics. Oxford, England. April 6 – 9, 2014. Paper presented: Fair Equality of Opportunity in Healthcare.

COST Action Meeting IS1201 – Veterans' voices: Learning from the experience of disasters relief teams and home-front coping in Israel. Tel-Aviv University, The Edmund J. Safra Center for Ethics, October 15-16, 2013. Paper presented: Ethics for Disasters.

17th Galilee Colloquia on Social, Moral and Legal Philosophy: Swiss-Israel philosophy Fund, June 19-22, 2013. Paper presented: Ethical Considerations of Triage – Unique Israeli Bioethics.

Equality of Opportunity in Theory and Practice, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, December 6-7, 2012. Paper presented: Equality of Opportunity versus Sufficiency of Capabilities in Health.

International Workshop - Personalized Medicine, The Israel National Institute for Health Policy Research, Dead Sea, September 5-6, 2012. Paper presented: Patients and Disease Stratification: Implications on Equity and (In)Equality.

26th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care – Worst Case Bioethics, Nazareth, August 21-24, 2012. Paper presented: Ethical Considerations of Triage.

How much is enough? Sufficiency and thresholds in health care. An interdisciplinary workshop at the Centre for Ethics, University of Zurich. Switzerland, June 7-8, 2012. Paper presented: Sufficiency Threshold and Priority to the Worse-Off.

Oxford-Mount Sinai Consortium on Bioethics, N.Y., April, 2011. Paper presented: Resource Allocation under Austere Conditions.

Brocher Summer Academy in Global Population health 2010, Harvard University – program in Ethics and Health, Brocher Foundation, University of Geneva, Switzerland, July 12-16th, 2010. Participation only.

Extensions of Justice, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, June, 2009. Comments to Shlomi Segall’s paper: The Health of Nations: Global Justice and National Responsibility for Health.

Oxford-Mount Sinai Consortium on Bioethics, N.Y., March, 2009. Paper presented: Sufficiency of Basic Human Functional Capabilities.


National Scope:

Inter-Disciplinary Research Group, Ramat-Gan, Israel. November 25, 2020. Paper presented: The Moral Status of Surplus Fertilized Eggs: Is it Ethical to Destroy Them or to Use them?

Triage under Extreme circumstances. April 26, 2020. Paper presented: Setting Priorities Among COVID-19 patients. Cohen Institute – Tel-Aviv University.

Cryopreserved Surplus Pre-embryos in IVF Units and their Future Use. Van-Leer Institute. January 14, 2020. Subject of lecture: The Ethical Perspective.

Fertility Medicine – Moral and Legal Dilemmas. August 20, 2019. Paper presented (panel): Posthumous Assisted Reproduction. The Society for Medicine and Law in Israel, The International Center for Health, Ethics, and Law at Haifa University, Sheba Medical Center.


בנקי זרע ושימוש בתאי זרע לצורך הולדה – היבטים רפואיים, משפטיים ואתיים. המכללה האקדמית נתניה ואיל"ה. 20 בפברואר, 2018. נושא ההרצאה: אוטונומיה הקשרית ואוטונומיה אינדיבידואליסטית – שתי נקודות מבט להולדה לאחר המוות.

סדנת מחקר: הסכמה מדעת במלאת 20 שנה לחוק זכויות החולה. המכללה האקדמית נתניה. 23-24 במאי, 2016. נושא ההרצאה: אוטונומיה ורציונאליות – הבחנה בין אמונות ובחירות.

השקת הספר ביואתיקה כחול-לבן: ביואתיקה ומשפט רפואי בישראל. מוסד ביאליק והמרכז האקדמי אונו. 11 באוקטובר, 2015. נושא ההרצאה: צה"ל בהאיטי – אתיקה ישראלית בתנאי מחסור ואסון המוני.

הכנס העשירי – לשכת האתיקה של האחיות והאחים בישראל. המרכז הרפואי שיבא, מאי 2016. נושא ההרצאה: בטיחות המטופל ובטיחות המטפל: האם יש חובה לטפל?

הוועדה המקצועית העליונה לריפוי בעיסוק. שלומי, 12 במאי, 2014. נושא ההרצאה: אתיקה מקצועית ובחינה ביקורתית של הקוד האתי.

הכנס התשיעי – לשכת האתיקה של האחיות והאחים בישראל: מי קובע עלי בכלל? אוטונומיה למול טיפול בכפייה. כפר המכביה, 15 במאי, 2014. נושא ההרצאה: אוטונומיה, פטרנליזם וכפיית טיפול רפואי.


Philosophy and Law Forum: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, June 16, 2013.

Blue and White Bioethics – Ono Academic College, Center for Health Law and Bioethics. Paper presented: Patients' Prioritization under Scarcity, January 20-22, 2011.

The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, The Economics and Society Program - Research Group on Equality, Fairness, Justice, and Solidarity of Social and Health Services. November 11, 2010. Paper presented: Theories of Distributive Justice and its Implementations to the Health Care Sphere.,

Jerusalem Forum for Bioethics. October 27, 2010.Paper presented: Sufficiency of Capabilities – An Alternative Account for Health Care Allocation.

"The Double-Agent Dilemma", Ono Academic College, Center for Health Law and Bioethics, April 16, 2010. Paper presented: Mixed Agency – Philosophical Deliberation on Resolving Conflicting Values in Medical Practice.

Social Justice Forum, The Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Tel Hashomer, February 9, 2010. Paper presented: Self Inflicted Diseases – Do We Have Moral Obligations Towards Imprudent Patients?

Gender, Health and Body: Changing Relations, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, April, 2001. Paper presented: Women, Sexuality and AIDS in Israel.

Israel AIDS Task Force Conference for Yosephtal Hospital’s Medical Staff, Eilat, 2001. Paper presented: The Physician Duties, and the Special Sensitivity of the HIV Patient.

Israel AIDS Task Force Conference for Dentists, Tel Aviv, 2000. Paper presented: The AIDS Epidemic – How Do We Resolve Our Fears?

Israel AIDS Task Force Conference for high school teachers, Tel Aviv, 2000. Paper presented: AIDS Prevention among Teenagers.



Edited Book

Siegal, G., Ram-Tiktin, E. (2o15). Israeli Bioethics. Jerusalem: Bialik Publishing and Ono Academic College. (Heb.)

Refereed Articles

Lipshitz N., Ram-tiktin E. 2021. “The Value of Being a Child: An Intuitive Case for a Development View”. The Journal of Value Inquiry (forthcoming).

Ram-tiktin E. and Lipshitz N (2020). “Why Adults have to be Children First”. The Journal of Value Inquiry (forthcoming). https://rdcu.be/b7V1l

Gilbar R, Ram-Tiktin E. (2019) It takes a village to raise a child: Solidarity in the courts - Judicial justification for posthumous use of sperm by bereaved parents (Medical Law Review, Forthcoming)

Ram-Tiktin E, Gilbar R. (2019) Solidarity as a theoretical framework for posthumous assisted reproduction and the case of bereaved parents. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 22: 501-517. 

Ram-Tiktin, E., Gilbar, R., Beck Fruchter, R., Ben- Ami, I., Friedler, S., Shalom-Paz, E. (2019). Expanding the use of posthumous Assisted Reproduction Technique: Should the deceased’s parents be allowed to use his sperm? Clinical Ethics, 14 (1):18-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477750918820648

Ram-Tiktin, E. (2018). The Tragedy of the Commons and Population Health: The State’s Intervention in an Individual’s Actions and Choices from a Capability Perspective. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 19(4): 438-455. https://doi.org/10.1080/19452829.2018.1471672

Ram-Tiktin, E. (2018). Universal Principles of Justice and Respect for Cultural and Religious Diversity in the Capability Approach. Ethics, Medicine and Public Health, 5 (Apr.-Jun.): 35-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemep.2018.03.011

Ram-Tiktin, E. (2017) “Ethical Consideration of Triage Following Natural Disaster: The IDF Experience in Haiti as a Case Study,” Bioethics, 31(6):467-475.

Ram-Tiktin, E. What is Enough? Sufficiency, Justice and Health.  Carina Fourie and Annette Rid (eds.) “Basic Human Functional Capabilities as the Currency of Justice in Healthcare". 2017.  Oxford University Press. 144-163.

Ram-Tiktin, E. “Equality of Opportunity versus Sufficiency of Capabilities in Healthcare”. 2016. World Journal of Social Science Research, 3(3): 418-437.

Ram-Tiktin, E.  “The Possible Effects of Moral Bioenhancement on Political Privileges and Fair Equality of Opportunity”. 2014. American Journal of Bioethics, 14(4): 43-44.


Ram-Tiktin, E. "The Right to Health Care as a Right to Basic Human Functional Capabilities". 2012. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 15(3): 337-351.


Ram-Tiktin, E. "A Decent Minimum for Everyone as a Sufficiency of Basic Human Functional Capabilities". 2011. American Journal of Bioethics, 11(7): 24-25.


Ram-Tiktin, E. "Setting Priorities among Patients Under Circumstances of Severe Scarcity –The IDF Humanitarian Mission to Haiti". 2011. Journal of Health Law and Bioethics, 4: 116-160. [in Hebrew]


Under Review

  1. Inconsistency in the International Humanitarian Law and the use of moderate physical pressure. (International Theory: A Journal of International Politics, Law and Philosophy)

In Progress

  1. Do physicians have the prerogative to keep their hand clean in the war against terror? 
  2. Moral Fictions in the Dying Patient Act.




Moral Philosophy:              Introduction to Moral Philosophy


Political Philosophy:           Human Rights and Global Justice

                                           Social Justice and Health

                                           Amartya Sen and John Rawls on Injustice

                                           Egalitarianism and its Critiques

                                           Ideals of Distribution

                                           Reading, Thinking, Writing: On Freedom of Thought



Bioethics:                           Applied Bioethics Seminar

                                           Central Arguments in Bioethics

                                           Moral Challenges in Medical Ethics

                                           Issues of Justice and Morality in Times of Crisis

                                           Human and Post-Human: Ethical implications of Human Enhancement